The American sprinter Sha’Carri Richardson, who was set for a star turn at the Tokyo Olympics this month, could miss the Games after testing positive for marijuana.

Richardson, 21, won the women’s 100-meter race at the U.S. track and field trials in Oregon last month, but her positive test automatically invalidated her result in that marquee event. It is unclear whether she will appeal the test result and the disqualification, or how long her suspension will be. It could be as short as one month. The suspension was confirmed by two people with knowledge of the test results who requested anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the situation.

U.S.A. Track & Field has notified other women who competed in the 100-meter trials final about the failed drug test, according to one person with direct knowledge of the information, and several runners have been told that they have moved up a spot in the final standings.

Jenna Prandini, who placed fourth at the trials, has been notified that she will now be one of the three American women running the 100 meters in Tokyo, and Gabby Thomas, who finished fifth at the trials, was named as an alternate for the race, the person said.

It’s possible that a one-month ban for Richardson could be set to begin at the time of her positive test at the trials, allowing her to return to competition just before the Olympics, which begin on July 23. Track and field at the Games does not begin until July 30.

News of the positive test was first reported by The Gleaner, a newspaper in Jamaica.

Richardson was expected to compete in the 200 meters at a Diamond League meet in Stockholm on Sunday, but she was not listed on the event’s entry list Thursday night. She has not commented on the positive test, but early Thursday afternoon she cryptically tweeted, “I am human.”

While Richardson’s suspension could be over by the time the Olympics begin, the positive test wiped her Olympic trials performance from the books. Unlike the Olympic selection processes of some other countries, U.S.A. Track & Field’s procedures leave little room for discretion over who qualifies. They dictate that the top three finishers in a given event at the trials qualify for the Olympics, provided their performances reach the Olympic standard.

It is possible that Richardson can still compete in the 4×100-meter relay even if she is ruled out of the individual race. The decision would be up to U.S.A. Track & Field, the national governing body of the sport.

Up to six athletes are selected for the country’s relay pool, and four of them must be the top three finishers in the 100 meters at the Olympic trials and the alternate. The governing body names the remaining two members of the relay pool.

Representatives for U.S.A. Track & Field did not immediately respond to requests for comment. Neither did officials from the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the Athletics Integrity Unit, the independent antidoping arm of World Athletics, the global governing body of track and field. Renaldo Nehemiah, Richardson’s agent, did not respond on Thursday to a phone call or a text message.

Marijuana is on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s list of prohibited substances. Both USADA and the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee are signatories to the WADA code, meaning they follow its rules.

The drug is banned only during in-competition periods, which are defined as beginning at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a competition and ending at its conclusion. Athletes may have up to 150 nanograms per milliliter of THC, the main psychoactive substance in marijuana, without causing a positive test.

According to USADA, marijuana is a prohibited substance because it can enhance performance, it poses a health risk to athletes and its use violates the spirit of the sport.

A suspension for testing positive for marijuana can be up to two years. The minimum length is a month, if an athlete can prove the use of marijuana was not related to sports performance and if the person completes a substance abuse treatment program. Just last month USADA suspended Kahmari Montgomery, a sprinter, for one month after he tested positive for marijuana.

Richardson’s positive test came about a week before the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee needs to submit the names of its athletes competing in Tokyo. And Richardson was not only supposed to be one of them, but also was expected to be one of the most recognizable Olympians, at least by the end of the Games.

She dominated the opening weekend of the trials, drawing attention for her scintillating performances, her long orange hair (“to make sure that I’m visible and being seen,” she said) and an emotional moment when she sprinted into the stands to hug her grandmother.

Her victory in 10.86 seconds made her an instant favorite to win the gold medal in Tokyo and set up a highly anticipated showdown at the Olympics with the Jamaican sprinter Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, who won the 100 at the last world championships. Richardson ran the second-fastest 100 this year, behind Fraser-Pryce, and in April ran the sixth-fastest time ever.

After qualifying for the Olympic team, she told NBC that a week before the trials she learned that her biological mother had died.

“Y’all see me on this track, and y’all see the poker face that I put on, but nobody but them and my coach know what I go through on a day-to-day basis,” she said of her family.

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